Das Wiener AKH – Innen hui, außen pfui

„Des anzig Gute, wenn ma im Wiener AKH liegt, ist, dass ma es dann ned von außen sehn muss.“

So lautet ein bekanntes wienerisches Zitat über das größte Krankenhaus Österreichs. Ein Spruch, der durchaus passend ist. So viele gute Sachen im AKH passieren und was dort auch alles geleistet wird, durch archetektonische Schönheit und Ästhetik besticht der Gebäudekomplex nicht.

Die hohen dunkelgrauen Betongebäude machen einen düsteren und tristen Eindruck. Die dominierenden Farben, Grau, Braun und eine Farbe, die sich am besten mit Schlamm vergleichen lässt, sorgen auch nicht für charmante Farbtupfer. Die hohen Bettentürme verursachen ein beklemmendes Gefühl. Das mag wohl auch daran liegen, dass es ein Krankenhaus ist und diese nicht gerade dafür bekannt sind, Fröhlichkeit zu versprühen. „Na, also schön is es wirklich ned, des AKH“, beschreibt es eine Wienerin, die gerade einen Bekannten besucht. Passend, dass man zu diesem schönen Ort am besten mit der wenig charmanten U6 kommt.

Die Farbenvielfalt ist überschaubar.

Das teuerste Krankenhaus Europas

„Schiach“ ist an diesem Spital nicht nur das Aussehen, auch der Bauvorgang war „schiach“. Bezeichnet die Entstehung des AKH doch den größten Bauskandal der Zweiten Republik. Alles begann 1955 mit dem Beschluss, für eine Milliarde Schilling das modernste Krankenhaus Europas, das Wiener Allgemeine Krankenhaus, zu bauen. Die Errichtung sollte in zehn Jahren erledigt sein. Mit dem Bau wurde allerdings erst 1972 begonnen. Die Allgemeine Krankenhaus Planungs- und Errichtungs AG mit Adolf Winter als Direktor wurde ins Leben gerufen.

Um Aufträge für den AKH-Bau zu erhalten, mussten Firmen Schmiergelder an Winters Firmen zahlen. Über Briefkastenfirmen in Liechtenstein ließ dieser zirka 40 Millionen Schilling an Schmiergeldern auf Konten in verschiedenen Ländern überweisen. Gleichzeitig explodierten die prognostizierten Kosten – von 15 Milliarden Schilling Mitte der 1970er-Jahre auf 36,7 Milliarden Schilling im Jahr 1980.

Betontürme prägen das Bild.

Durch die Kostenexplosion und die damit verbundene Schmiergeldaffäre kostete der Bau des AKH 45 Milliarden Schilling und damit 45 Mal so viel wie vorgesehen war. Es stellt damit das teuerste Krankenhaus Europas dar. Der vollständige Betrieb konnte erst 1994 mit 29-jähriger Verspätung aufgenommen werden.

Nicht alles ist immer nur schlecht

Trotz der unrühmlichen Entstehungsgeschichte und dem nicht gerade ansprechenden Aussehen ist das größte Krankenhaus des Landes, in dem es 1.922 Betten gibt, heute bekannt für seine hervorragenden medizinischen Leistungen. So gelang es 2003 einem Ärzteteam des Krankenhauses weltweit zum ersten Mal eine menschliche Zunge zu verpflanzen.

Wie gut, dass Österreich über eine gute Gesundheitsversorgung (vgl. HWWI 2010) verfügt, so haben die Bürger den Luxus, sich nur aus ästhetischen Gründen über die Krankenhäuser beschweren zu können. Wie schön, dass ein gutes Krankenhaus nicht gut aussehen muss, um guten Service zu bringen. „Gefallen tut mir das AKH ja echt nicht, aber das muss es auch nicht. Wichtig ist nur, dass die Leute wieder gesund gemacht werden“, bringt es eine Passantin auf den Punkt.

Quellen:

Beninger, Werner (2011): Korruption in der Zweiten Republik. In: Ernst Bruckmüller (Hg.): Korruption in Österreich. Historische Streiflichter. Wien: Braumüller, 165-190.

Gehler, Michael und Sickinger, Hubert (Hg.) (2007): Politische Affären und Skandale in Österreich. Von Mayerling bis Waldheim. Innsbruck: StudienVerlag.

Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI) (2010): Qualität und Effizient der Gesundheitsversorgung im internationalen Vergleich. HWWI Policy, Paper 55.

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